PSYC 2385 Stroop Quiz

Please complete all questions. While you may choose to submit answers multiple times, only the MOST RECENT submission found at the quiz completion time will be graded (regardless of which submission has the most correct answers). Good luck!

Question 1
Amir is explaining the Stroop task to his pal Tammy. He describes the steps and conditions involved in the Stroop task, as well as how the results of each condition are measured. “It sounds like this task measures the effects of distraction on how well we can sort through different stimuli,” says Tammy. How would you respond to this statement? PICK ONE of the following options:
Question 1 Response Options
Question 2
i -- The colour of the words
ii -- The placement of the words
iii -- The average accuracy of the participant when sorting word stimuli
iv -- The amount of time required to sort all 60 word  stimuli
v -- The meaning of the words
vi -- Whether the meaning of the words matched the colour of the words
vii -- Whether the visual characteristics of the words matched the physical characteristics of the words
viii -- Whether the word stimuli were neutral or incongruent
ix -- The total number of words correctly sorted
x -- The average amount of time required to sort each word stimulus
xi -- The total number of words sorted incorrectly
xii -- The cognitive abilities of each participant
From the following options, please determine which is/are the BEST description/descriptions of the independent variable/variables for the word/colour stroop task.
Question 2 Response Options
Question 3
i -- The colour of the words
ii -- The placement of the words
iii -- The average accuracy of the participant when sorting word stimuli
iv -- The amount of time required to sort all 60 word  stimuli
v -- The meaning of the words
vi -- Whether the meaning of the words matched the colour of the words
vii -- Whether the visual characteristics of the words matched the physical characteristics of the words
viii -- Whether the word stimuli were neutral or incongruent
ix -- The total number of words correctly sorted
x -- The average amount of time required to sort each word stimulus
xi -- The total number of words sorted incorrectly
xii -- The cognitive abilities of each participant
From the following options, please determine which is/are the BEST description/descriptions of the dependent variable/variables for the word/colour stroop task. 1 point for each correct answer. 1 point deduction for each incorrect answer.
Question 3 Response Options
Question 4a
Toby wants to run an exact replication of the word/colour Stroop task we completed in class: she writes out a list of variables she’d like to control for the experiment, as well as a quick justification for WHY they should be controlled. From her list (see below), please select which controlled variable did NOT apply to this experiment OR was NOT justified well.
Question 4a Response Options
Question 4b
Toby tells her supervisor that she would like every participant in her word/colour Stroop task to be in BOTH CONDITIONS to help remove any difference between conditions that might be due to participant variables (e.g. inherent computer skill levels or perceptual abilities). Toby's research supervisor recommends that her experiment use a methodological technique known as COUNTERBALANCING. Which of the following options gives the BEST explanation for why counterbalancing is important?
Question 4b Response Options
Question 5

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Chart A

 

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Chart B

 

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Chart C

 

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Chart D

Using these charts, please determine which, if any, show the data that your class generated for the word/colour stroop task.
Question 5 Response Options
Question 6
Yosef is a student at a neighbouring university who ran a slightly DIFFERENT version of the word/colour Stroop task than the one we completed (i.e. some of the variables he used may have been different than the ones we used). Yosef has included 95% confidence interval error bars in his charts – if mean values for two different conditions have error bars that do NOT overlap, in this case, we know that the differences between those two means are statistically significant. Using the charts (Chart F and Chart G) Yosef has made of his results, which of the following interpretations is most accurate.

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Graph F

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Graph G

Question 6 Response Options
Question 7
i -- For any given participant, as speed increases accuracy would be expected to increase
ii -- For any given participant, as speed increases, accuracy would be expected to decrease
iii -- Completing the task multiple times helps ensure that the values measured are reliable
iv --- Using two different conditions is essential for a study to be considered a true experiment
Yosef hands in his finished report as a part of a school project. His professor notes that measuring task performance using two different dependent variables was a wise choice. Select one or more of the following statements to BEST explain why using two different dependent variables is important for a Stroop task?
Question 7 Response Options
Question 8
Mariah is writing a research paper on the Stroop effect, and writes the paragraph and references section shown in Item H. Which (if any) of the following are ERRORS that Mariah has made (assuming she is using APA 6 formatting)?

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Item H

i -- The article she is using  should be cited in-text when it is first mentioned, not at the end of the paragraph
ii -- The in-text citation requires a page number in this situation
iii -- The in-text citation should include the first initial of all contributing authors
iv -- The year of publication should not be included in the in-text citation
v -- The paragraph must include a direct quote from the article to comply with APA 6 guidelines
vi -- The year of publication should not be in parenthesis for the references section
vii -- The volume # for the article should not be printed in italics
Question 8 Response Options
there are no formatting errors
Question 9
In the celebrity stroop task, an incongruent deck consisted of _________ (please select from the following options)
Question 9 Response Options
Question 10
In the celebrity stroop task, the incongruent deck was sorted __________ (please select from the following options)
Question 10 Response Options
Question 11
The PURPOSE of sorting the incongruent deck in the celebrity Stroop task the way described in Question 10 was to find out ________ (please select the BEST and most specific response from the following options)
Question 11 Response Options
Question 12
Graphs I and J are graphs of the results obtained by your class for the celebrity Stroop task. Once again, these graphs are shown with 95% confidence interval error bars, so if mean values for two different conditions have error bars that do NOT overlap, in this case, we know that the differences between those two means are statistically significant. How would you interpret the class results? Select all that apply (1 point for each correct answer, 1 point deduction for each incorrect answer):

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Charts I and J

Question 12 Response Options
Question 13
There is no title for Graph I (there is also no title for Graph J, but that won't be important for this question). Based on the information presented within Graph I, please suggest a proper graph title which provides as much detail as possible about the graph contents in 200 characters or less (2 points):
Question 14
Mernaz is a researcher who theorizes that the Stroop effect (i.e. any observed performance deficits on a Stroop task for incongruent stimuli compared to congruent stimuli) can be explained as the result of automatic cognitive processes interfering with effortful processing. In the case of the word/colour stroop task, she notes that reading and understanding the meaning of a word is an automatic process, while detecting and responding to an object’s colour requires more effort. She notes that experience could affect how automatic a cognitive process is: since we spend more time in our daily lives reading words than identifying objects by colour, reading is more automatic for most people. Assuming that Mernaz’s explanation is correct, and taking the class results from the celebrity Stroop task into consideration, select statements from the following list which would most likely also be true.
i -- If we completed a different version of the word/colour Stroop task where participants identify the word’s meaning rather than the font colour, we likely would have observed large, significant performance deficits for incongruent trials vs. congruent trials
 
ii -- Reading words is always the most automatic form of processing evoked by visual stimuli, and thus, it will always be easier and faster to complete reading tasks than other performance tasks involving visual stimuli
 
iii -- People who work in jobs such as retail or manufacturing that require employees to sort objects by colour quickly and automatically for many hours per week may not exhibit typical performance deficits in the word/colour stroop task we completed in class to compared to the general population
 
iv -- If less familiar faces were used (e.g. the faces of historical military generals or nobel prize winners rather than famous pop music juggernauts) in the celebrity Stroop task, participants may have exhibited impaired performance (relative to task performance if celebrity faces were used) when sorting by faces using an incongruent deck.
 
v -- If more familiar faces were used (e.g. the faces of close family members or friends) in the celebrity Stroop task, participants may have exhibited impaired performance (relative to task performance if celebrity faces were used) when sorting by faces using an incongruent deck.
 
Question 14 Response Options
Question 15

For the short answer section, please choose one of the following two prompts, and write a brief response (1000 characters or less). You will receive 6 points for your written content, and 3 points for writing quality. Be sure to note which prompt you are using (A or B).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Option A: No experiment is perfect. A methodological limitation is any problem that could potentially affect the accuracy, precision, reliability or generalizability of the experiment’s results (often by introducing additional sources of variation in the dependent variable). For the Stroop experiment of your choice (either the word/colour Stroop task or the celebrity Stroop task), (1) please identify TWO methodological limitations, (2) explain SPECIFICALLY how each limitation could have affected the results, and (3) list methodological improvements that could allow future researchers to avoid each problem you’ve identified.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Option B: If you were given a chance to explore more about the Stroop effect, what would you do? Please (1) specify two NEW research questions that you could answer using an experiment involving a Stroop task, and then (2) briefly describe different experiments you would use to answer EACH separate research question. Make sure that the experiment you’ve described is, in fact, a Stroop task, and that it contains enough detail (including the different experimental conditions, task-specific methodologies, and what specific ways you would use to quantify your effect) to demonstrate to your reader that this experiment would, in fact, answer your research question.