Minimal Risk

According to the TCPS 2 Guidelines, minimal risk research is defined as "research in which the probability and magnitude of possible harms implied by participation in the research is no greater than those encountered by participants in those aspects of their everyday life that relate to the research."

Some research examples that often are NOT considered minimal risk include:

  • Research on sensitive topics that could cause distress to research subjects/participants
  • Inclusion of research subjects/participants who are less than 19 years of age (unless these are confirmed KPU students)
  • Inclusion of research subjects/participants who are unable to be fully informed, such as those with mental disabilities or dementia
  • Focus Groups in which sensitive, or controversial issues are discussed

Some research examples that are likely considered minimal risk include:

  • Survey research asking students about their clothing preference
  • Testing student memory recall of words rehearsed
  • Ethnographic study focused on understanding Zombie subculture in Vancouver