What is the project about?
ISFS is in the midst of an exciting production research project entitled “Integrating hogs in a cover-vegetable rotation for healthy soils & humans “This effort began in the spring of 2018 and we are several years into the study. The main thrust of this project is to determine the potential benefits for small scale farmers from integration of hog and vegetable production. Most market crop farmers routinely put part of their total growing acreage into cover crops for a season, as part of their crop rotation plan. A common management practice is to sow, grow and turn under the cover crop in these "resting" fields up to 3 times per year (spring, summer and fall). This practice is aimed at adding soil organic matter (SOM), enhancing fertility and controlling weeds and diseases. However, the practice of tilling these cover crops back into the soil to terminate growth also negatively impacts soil structure and biological activity while contributing to soil compaction, generating greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the potential for soil erosion. These effects are exacerbated in clay textured soils such as those present in the Fraser Delta in British Columbia. Additionally, this management method requires machinery and implements not necessarily available to smaller scale and start up market crop farmers, many of whom we at ISFS work to support.
Years of informal experimentation on our teaching and research farm, as well as from numerous exchanges with farmers actively practicing Integrated Crop Livestock Systems farming (ICLS) has convinced us of the merits of using hogs as part of a sustainable crop rotation, nutrient cycling and land management system for market crop farming. When managed well, an integrated hog and crop system can reduce labour and revitalize neglected and diminished fields rapidly, getting them into a productive state while eliminating the need for expensive machinery, hence making this a particularly viable option for new entrant and smaller scale farmers. This, through the integration of hog grazing to terminate cover crops, this research seeks to find regenerative ways to manage cover crops and on-farm fertility while reducing reliance on the extensive use of tractor tillage has important environmental and climate change ramifications, small scale farm start-up and ongoing economic implications.
This research, being conducted at the Tsawwassen First Nation Farm School, located on Tsawwassen First Nation land, has several objectives.
- To investigate the impacts of integrating hog strip grazing in a market vegetable –cover crop rotation system on soil quality, the nutrient life cycle from soil to plants, subsequent vegetable harvest and the economics of such integration
- To compare cover cropping system managed with hogs to a system managed with tractor tillage.
- To use Randomized Complete Block Design to set up the experimental field using pigs in a strip grazing system and a tractor tillage system to seed and then manage cover crops.
- To use standard agronomic practices to manage cover crops and their impacts on soil, cover crop development, hog growth and crop nutrition will be analyzed and compared.
This research lies at the interface between applied scientific investigation and technical knowledge generation. It is also novel as it attempts to bridge segregated domains of agriculture, environmental health and climate change, indigenous food sovereignty, soil science, food systems, and human health and nutrition under one holistic approach.
Lead Research Team
Leah Sandler, PhD - Organic Agriculture Research Associate
Leah comes to B.C. with a history of work and study experiences in a variety of different farming systems. For several years after university she worked on a research agricultural station in Missouri doing field research on over 70 trials covering various crop production systems as well as fertilizer management, integrated crop and pest management and irrigation and water drainage management. Following that, she worked on several small scale organic vegetable farms throughout the US Midwest before she moved to Ghana to do agricultural development and extension in the Eastern region. She completed her PhD at Purdue University in botany with a focus in agroecology, conducting research in organic hemp production both agronomically as an alternative crop and from a social sciences perspective looking at farmer adoption rates and techniques. In her most recent position before arriving in B.C., she worked as an education director and research associate at a non-profit working in sustainable agriculture conducting field research and operating in an extension role, working with farmers across the state of Wisconsin. Leah joins the ISFS team in order to continue to build B.C.’s sustainable agriculture extension system and conduct production agriculture research.
Micheal Robinson, Research Associate
Originally from Vancouver Island, Micheal’s passion for agriculture led him to Vancouver and KPU’s Sustainable Agriculture program. After the program, Micheal spent time managing an organic livestock operation on Vancouver Island. Micheal was involved with the Tsawwassen Farm School as Farm Manager from 2017 to 2019. Currently, Micheal is taking on the role as a research technician for the Institute's Hog Grazing and Pasture Rotation project, bringing his expertise and skills from his farm school work. He will continue to build BC's sustainable agriculture extension system and conduct production agriculture research.
Dr. Kent Mullinix, ISFS Director, Principal Investigator
Dr. Sean Smuckler, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia
Corine Singfield, Former Masters student and lead researcher
Industry Partners and Collaborators
- Nautsa’mawt Tribal Council: Grant recipient partner
- University of British Columbia
- West Coast Seed
This project is funded by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Granting program: Canadian Agricultural Partnership, AgriScience Program: Projects Component
This summer is the second year of grazing hogs at the TFS. This spring we seeded a pasture into summer spring cover (peas, clover and oats) and the pigs are now happily in their research plots. We move them to the next plot approximately every week (Pigs are moved when most of the cover crop had been uprooted and laid on the ground but before the hogs could begin cratering. Best management practices are to move hogs when no more than 20% round was visible or devoid of cover. This usually corresponded with 5-12 days depending on cover crop growth stage, weather and soil moisture.)
On July 27, 2020 - we mowed ad tilled those plots that are receiving the conventional tillage treatment and planted the summer cover.
The field that was in pasture last year (for pigs and tillage treatment) was planted in corn and winter squash this spring, following rigorous soil sampling from all plots for physical attributes included aggregate stability, bulk density, penetration resistance, volumetric water content and texture; chemical attributes included nitrate and ammonium and electrical conductivity, and; biological attributes included active carbon and soil respiration. The corn is now in growth stage v8 and is about 4.5 ft tall.
Coming soon! We will have some short informative and educational videos in the next few months.